The World Resource Institute defines Scope 1, 2 & 3 emissions as
The GHG Protocol Corporate Standard classifies a company’s GHG emissions into three ‘scopes’. Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from owned or controlled sources. Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the generation of purchased energy. Scope 3 emissions are all indirect emissions (not included in scope 2) that occur in the value chain of the reporting company, including both upstream and downstream emissions. (GHG Protocol, FAQ)
The United States Environmental Protection Agency further elaborates on the GHG’s definition, stating
Scope 1 emissions are direct greenhouse (GHG) emissions that occur from sources that are controlled or owned by an organization (e.g., emissions associated with fuel combustion in boilers, furnaces, vehicles). Scope 2 emissions are indirect GHG emissions associated with the purchase of electricity, steam, heat, or cooling. Although scope 2 emissions physically occur at the facility where they are generated, they are accounted for in an organization’s GHG inventory because they are a result of the organization’s energy use.
Related SDIA publications
Related non-SDIA publications
- A more practicalized perspective of the GHG protocol can be found on PlanA’s website, an organization that helps decarbonize organizations.